The European Union (EU) and its member states have viewed immigration as a political subject for some time. Even six years after a massive spike in migrant numbers in 2015, immigration still remains a hot topic in the EU.

On one hand, liberal, Green, and Social Democrat parties, especially in Western Europe, advocate for the right of free movement. On the other hand, conservative parties, including the current governments of Poland and Hungary, are dead set on preventing, or at least limiting, migration.

The migration policy of the EU itself is dominated by these conservative elements. For example, one major part of it is the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, Frontex, based in Warsaw. This agency, as the name suggests, is responsible for controlling the borders of the EU. Various media outlets have documented that this includes illegal “pushbacks” of migrants back across EU sea borders.

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